Vertical Soak Diffussion for Bamboo Conservation
This excellent document is converted from a PDF document
from the www.bamboocentral.org
This was done due to the
PDF causing my PC to hang and space issues. For the complete and exceptional PDF document please visit there website. No information has been altered. The Environmental Bamboo Foundation (EBF) is an Indonesian non-profit organization started in 1993 by designer and environmentalist, LINDA GARLAND.
The EBF strives to protect tropical forests by promoting and demonstrating the many conservation and development opportunities that bamboo offers. The mission of the Environmental Bamboo Foundation is to encourage, through research and education, the sustainable planting and utilization of bamboo in an effort to promote its many environmental benefits and protect the world’s remaining tropical forests and mangroves.
Based in Bali, Indonesia, the EBF has affiliate non-profit organizations in the United States and in Holland.
Initial research on modified Boucherie Teatment was done by Prof. Dr. W. Liese, Universität Hamburg, Germany, and later adapted by the Environmental Bamboo Foundation with Don Longuevan under a grant from IESC International Executives Service Corp. Laboratory testing was performed by Koppers-Hickson in New Zealand.
We thank Ben Brown of Mangrove Action Project for providing valuable help and insight during the testing period and providing translation services for the Indonesian edition.
We appreciate the advise/comments made by Prof.Liese along the development of the VSD treatment.
Many thanks to Emerald Starr of Sacred Mountain Sanctuary in Sideman, Bali, who used a high percentage of experimental VSD treated bamboo timbers when building his resort. Seven years later, the bamboo he used is still in excellent condition.
|Environmental Bamboo Foundation (EBF)|
|Graphics & Layout:||Studio LaBel, Hedi LaBel|
|Editorial Assistant:||Petra Schneider|
|Project Manager:||Ketut Sadia|
This publication is not copyrighted. EBF encourages the translation, adaptation and copying of materials for non-commercial use, providing an acknowledgement to EBF.
Every effort has been made to ensure that all the information in this booklet is accurate. However, due to differing conditions, kind and age of the bamboos, tools, and individual skills, the publisher cannot be responsible for any injuries, losses, and other damages that may result from the use of the information of this booklet.
First Edition published 2-1-2003 by: LINDA GARLAND Environmental Bamboo Foundation, Bali, Indonesia, firstname.lastname@example.org, www.bamboocentral.org
Table of Contents
5.1 Elevation View
5.2 Floor Pan
8.1 Reuse Guidelines
The use of bamboo products requires often its protection against biodegradation by chemical treatment. Its application is hindered by the structure of the culm, the need for larger technical installations and the danger of environmental side-effects. The VSD method developed by EBF is obviously an efficient method to obtain well treated culms, safe to be handled. Its wider application, also to other species, will strengthen its base.
Walter Liese Universität Hamburg, Germany
Bamboo culms are a natural material susceptible to insect and fungal attack. Without treatment products made from bamboo can be expected to last for only up to 3 years. There are many different techniques for curing and treating bamboo culms in order to prevent splitting, insect infection and fungal growth.
In this booklet we present the Vertical Soak Diffusion (VSD) method which uses minimally toxic borates as preservatives. The method has been tested in Indonesia using three species of bamboo: Dendrocalamus asper* Gigantochloa apus* Gigantochloa atter* If you are intending to use other species of bamboo, follow the methodology in this booklet to treat a small section (1-2 internodes) and observe the rate of penetration of the red dye discussed in step 14, page 18
Whereas bamboo treated by the modified boucherie system (a pressure system introduced by Prof. Dr. Liese, Hamburg, Germany) is appropriate for large scale plantations growing bamboo for construction timber, furniture, and some crafts the VSD system works well with small-plantation situations , and community development work in rural villages.
|Clumping bamboos are non-
invasive. They do not ruin
buildings, they grow very fast
when young and the culms
are larger than those of the
running bamboo. They require
little maintenance, although
simple clump management
will benefit both the grower
and the bamboos.
|In the dry
season, almost all
culms that are 3 years or older
can be removed from a clump
by cutting them just above a
node about 20cm above the
ground. Some younger ones
have to remain for further
nourishment of the rhizome.
any shoots that are going
edible, cooked). Leave
shoots of good diameter
have potential to produce
strong poles for timber
Harvest Bamboo during dry season
The best season for harvesting is after the rainy season when starch content in the bamboo sap is low. Starch is the favourite food for pests. Don’t harvest during shooting season! Cut bamboo that is 3-5 years old. Bamboo older than 5 years is harder and the inner culm wall becomes impermeable to the BORAX BORIC ACID Solution.
There are 2 different ways to tell the age of bamboo culms:
1) Mostly, culms at the inside of a clump are the oldest.
2) Label the new shoots, this is the safest method.
|The culms should be treated
soon after having been cut,
but can be left for a few
days standing upright,
placed on a stone. Due to
the ongoing transpiration
by the leaves the culm will
loose some of its moisture
and also starch, which is
the food for the pest, i.e.
the Powderpost Beetle.
But don’t wait too long,
since moisture is required
for the following diffusion
Stored bamboo is endangered by beetle infestation which can be recognized in the form of a talcum-like powder and small holes in the area of the nodes and along the internodes.
Floor plan Treatment Area
Iron Rod with hex Nut
Bamboo Stick for Stirring
Plastic Containers Mixing & Measuring
Small Sum pump
Red Textile Dye Aniline
Containers For Solution
Brushes for cleaning
Rope (for tying culms)
There are 3 differrent ways to do this:
1. Volume in liters = inner radius squared x 3.1416 x height in
Example: bamboo with radius = 6cm, height
2. Fill one punctured culm with water and simply measure how many liters it takes to fill it up. Multiply by the number of culms.
3. Fill one average internode; measure the amount in liters and multiply by the number internodes and by the number of culms.
gives a 9 to 1 or 10%
Water 45 litres
1.5 litres each
Add red analyn textile dye. It should completely penetrate the tissue of the culms from the inside all the way to the outside skin. If the particles of the dye are too large they will only partially dissolve and “plug” the openings in the tissue thus preventing penetration of the preservative.
Slowly add water stirring constantly until BORAX/BORIC ACID and dye are completely dissolved and no more crystals are at bottom of container.
Fill a small test container with
outside of the bamboo
culms with water and
and sand, or scotch brite)
Weld hex nut
wall. Insert the iron rod
punch holes through the
Move the bamboo to the
Connect a hose to the container which holds the mixture. Pump the solution into the culms.
Fill the entire bamboo with the solution. Every morning refill the culms which have absorbed approximately 1% of the liquid overnight. Every day absorption rate is less.
|On Day 13 don’t add more
Allow the level to go down to avoid overflow when the last node is broken.
On Day 14, test check the
culm by sawing off the
upper internode. The
Store the bamboo
ACID is more environmentally friendly than other
wood preservatives currently used. Reuse
The BORAX/BORIC ACID SOLUTION can be used more than once for treating bamboo, as long as the hydrometer reading of the solution is still at the initial level, of approximately 1.035.
Keep in mind that, as the bamboo sap gets partially drained out of the culm, the starch/sugar from the sap will move into the treatment solution. This can lead to inaccurate hydrometer readings. After the 3rd or 4th use gradually increase the BORAX/BORIC ACID concentration to 1.040 and 1.050.
At the point when the drained solution foams significantly and/or mold is forming on the surface of the solution and on the bamboo culm it is time for the solution to be disposed of.
BORAX/BORIC ACID is non toxic to the environment, but is highly
saline. When a moderate amount of it is absorbed into the ground, the ground filters out the salt to the point where it does not pollute the ground water. However, it is advisable to dispose of it safely and out of reach of children. When diluted with more water the discarded solution could be used as a herbicide on terraces and walkways.
PT CHIMIFIN JAYA UTAMA, JAKARTA
Tel 021-424-0202, 424-7141, 425-5563
UD. Saba Kimia, Denpasar,